Types of Electronic Components

Types of Electronic Components

Electronic components are the devices that construct an electronic circuit. They change electric current so it can perform functions like amplification or processing signals. They are divided into two categories – passive and active.

Devices that are designed to produce a periodic alternating output at a specified frequency (rate). Items in this family can have their output frequency programmed.


Resistors are a vital component in electronic circuits because they moderate the flow of electricity so that other components don’t receive too much or too little power. This prevents short circuits and other potential safety hazards. They also help to dampen signals and can be used as a voltage divider.

The resistance of a resistor is measured in ohms, named after German physicist Georg Simon Ohm. It is common to see ohms followed by a prefix like kilo-, mega-, or giga- to make larger values easier to read.

The size of a resistor is directly proportional to its power rating, which is the maximum amount of energy it can dissipate without being damaged or altered in any way. The power rating is indicated by several colored bands on the resistor body, using a standardized code that can be interpreted easily with online tools or charts.


A capacitor is a component that stores energy by holding opposite charges apart. It consists of two conductors that are separated by an insulating material such as vacuum, air or Mylar. This allows it to store electric potential energy like a battery. The capacity is determined by its size and the type of dielectric used. Different types of capacitors are used for different purposes. They are most often found in LC oscillation circuits, but can also be used for DC blocking, coupling, bypass, filtering and energy conversion.

Capacitors are useful because they can withstand much higher voltages than batteries, and can deliver more energy in a shorter period of time. For example, they can be Electronic component used to ensure that information stored in large computer memories is not lost during a brief loss of electric power.

They can also be used to filter out low-frequency signals, while allowing higher ones to pass through unimpeded, which improves signal quality. However, it’s important to remember that they can only withstand a certain amount of voltage and should never be connected to the wrong polarity, as this could result in electrical damage or even explosion.


An inductor, sometimes called a choke or coil, is a passive two-terminal electronic component that stores energy in magnetic field when electric current passes through it. Its schematic symbol is a looped wire winding around a core material such as air, ferrite or iron.

The inductor creates a magnetic field, and the time-varying nature of this field induces an alternating voltage in the conductor (L) passing through it. The polarity of this induced voltage is opposite to the direction of the current change that caused it, which can be explained by Lenz’s law and is what makes an inductor behave differently from a capacitor.

For example, if the power is cut and the inductor realises that there’s less current flowing through it than before, it will push electrons out to try ideal diode to stabilise the flow of electricity. This will cause the LED light to start fading in, instead of turning off immediately. The inductor acts as a “battery” for the LED, storing energy to power it up gradually. This can be a desirable effect in some applications, especially when the LED is used to illuminate a display.


A transistor is a semiconductor device that can be used to amplify or switch currents and signals. It is one of the most important inventions in electronics and can be found in everything from Mp3 players to calculators. It has three terminals and is a key component of any electronic circuit.

When a transistor is activated, electrons pass from the emitter to the collector through a small base current. The change in the base current causes a corresponding increase or decrease in the flow of electrons from the emitter to the collector. The ratio of the composite electron flow to the diffused base current determines the amplification ability of the transistor.

The power transistor is a high-frequency switching device that can withstand large currents in the ON state and block them at low frequencies. It can also handle a high voltage in the OFF state. It is easy to operate and can be used in various applications, such as inverters and choppers. It is also smaller in size, making it a more efficient replacement for electromechanical switches and relays.


Semiconductors are substances that fall between conductors and insulators in terms of how easily current passes through them. They can be manipulated with a variety of impurities, known as doping, to exhibit useful electrical properties like amplification, switching, and energy conversion.

They’re found in thousands of electronics products, from computer chips and cell phones to appliances, gaming hardware, and medical equipment. They are also the backbone of modern technology, and, just like oil or clean air or water, countries will fight to protect their access to these semiconductors.

Power semiconductors are a critical part of electronic systems, providing efficient electricity to everything from mobile devices to solar panels and wind turbines. They convert electrical power to the right shape and voltage, then condition it for use by equipment and the electric grid. Denton offers the most comprehensive high-volume production platforms and application solutions to support the needs of power semiconductor manufacturing.

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