Designing RF and Amplifier PCBs
Class AB amplifiers are often selected for their low noise levels and simple layout requirements. They also have the advantage of high B1 amplitude stability over a range of load values.
PCB materials suppliers evaluate the CTE in three axes (x, y and z). This should be as low as possible to ensure minimal physical changes with temperature.
RF and amplifier PCBs must be designed for thermal stability. Several factors can impact the ability of a substrate material to maintain its dielectric constant at high temperatures. The thermal properties of a RF PCB are best evaluated by a measurement of the thermal coefficient of dielectric constant, which varies from substrate to substrate. The RO4350B FR4 PCB material, for example, has a TCD of +50 ppm/degC and can be used at a wide range of ambient temperatures.
During the design process, it is important to pay attention to the layout of the RF signal traces on the PCB. These traces should be routed in a way that minimizes reflections and unwanted noise coupling. Ideally, the RF signal lines should be routed on different layers than digital signals to prevent interference. In addition, the bend radius should be greater than 3 x the line width to reduce characteristic impedance changes at corners.
Another factor to consider is that a large number of ground vias should be placed on the RF layer to prevent ground current loops from increasing parasitic ground inductance. Furthermore, the RF signal layer should have a large copper foil area to increase isolation between adjacent signals and power lines. This is essential because a high-performance RF PCB must be free of unwanted noise that can interfere with signal integrity.
The components used in RF PCBs must be carefully selected to ensure they can handle the high frequencies and voltages involved. Among the most important are capacitors, which must have a value of at least 10nF. Moreover, they should be capable of delivering current to the amplifier IC with minimal losses.
The thickness and type of material used to make an RF PCB has a significant impact on its RF and Amplifier PCB performance. For example, thicker materials take longer to manufacture and cost more than thin ones. They also have a higher dielectric constant, which may cause distortion or interference when the circuit operates at high frequencies.
It is also important to choose a PCB substrate with a low percentage of moisture absorption. This is because some PCB laminates absorb up to 2 percent of moisture, causing a shift in the dielectric constant and an increase in reflected signals. PCBs made with RO4350B laminate, on the other hand, have a low moisture absorption rate and maintain a consistent dielectric constant.
In addition to the materials, it is necessary to choose a ground plane that is ideally positioned beneath RF components and transmission lines. This is because a good ground plane will improve the signal quality by providing thermal and electrical paths for heat flow away from components such as transistors and amplifiers.
One of the most important considerations when designing a RF PCB is proper layout. RF signals are much more sensitive to noise than digital circuits and can be easily affected by parasitic components unless best practices for routing and PCB layout are followed. For example, the RF signal path should be kept as short as possible and high-frequency circuits should be separated from low-frequency ones to minimize mutual interference.
It is also essential to consider the PCB stack-up, as this will affect power and ground access. Ideally, a single-layer board will be used for an RF PCB, with a solid ground plane that underlies all layers, allowing signals to reach the ground layer from any point on the board.
Another important aspect of an RF PCB is the use of decoupling capacitors. These are typically larger than standard capacitors, ranging from tens of uFds to several thousand uFds. These are used to remove stray currents from the signal lines and prevent the RF ICs from picking up external noise, causing distortion at the amplifier output.
Finally, it is important to consider the shape of the signal conductors. This will influence the impedance of the circuit and should be optimized based on the design requirements. For example, it is recommended to avoid using stubs on traces and to RF and Amplifier PCB Supplier keep the trace width as large as possible, which will help reduce losses in transmission lines.
Once the PCB has been designed and the layout has been optimized, it’s time to test it. A 1.2in wire is placed at each amplifier pin and the IC’s RF-immunity performance is measured at the frequency of interest, such as 2.4GHz in a WLAN application. This helps identify the amplifier pins that are most susceptible to RF noise coupling.
RF testing is challenging because the signals are very low, which requires a clean DUT socket-to-board-to-tester path with minimum discontinuities. Additionally, the RF circuitry has parasitic effects that require sophisticated modeling and simulation tools to understand. Robust test hardware design methodology with a rich library, two- and three-dimensional simulation, and parasitic modeling tools reduces the risk of an unsuccessful RF testing solution and improves quality and test accuracy.
It’s important to keep the length of RF lines as short as possible because the capacitance is inversely proportional to the distance between terminals. Also, shielding the traces with a ground terminated copper strip can help prevent RF interference by keeping the charge from coupling to other traces.
Another consideration is the temperature range that the RF board can tolerate. The material used for the insulated layers should be capable of withstanding high temperatures. This will ensure that the insulation doesn’t decompose and that the components will be able to dissipate heat properly.